MLB free agency tracker 2022: Live updates on news, rumors, signings and trades after lockout ends

MLB free agency tracker 2022: Live updates on news, rumors, signings and trades after lockout ends

MLB and the MLBPA found the keys to a deal, and the lockout is over.

On March 10, the two sides reportedly agreed to a new CBA, thus ending the months-long owner implemented lockout and reopening the business of baseball, fast-tracking spring training and, ultimately, the start of the 2022 season.

To that end, there are still hundreds of free agents to be signed, plenty of trades to be made and more than enough business to be conducted between March 10 and April 7, the date for Opening Day.

Some of baseball’s best, including Freddie Freeman, Carlos Correa and Kris Bryant, are still waiting for new homes for the 2022 season, meaning that the next few days could offer seismic shifts before the start of the season.

Here’s the latest on MLB free agency, rumors, deals and more:

MORE: What to know about 2022 MLB schedule after lockout ends

MLB free agency news, updates on signings and trades

The new CBA was ratified on March 10 just after 6 p.m. ET and the lockout officially ended at 7 p.m. ET, signaling the start of free agency.

SN will be tracking all the latest deals, rumors and more following the return of the business of baseball below. (All times Eastern.)

March 14

4:46 p.m. — The Mariners trade for Jesse Winker, who made his first All-Star Game last season. 

Winker hit .305/.394/.556 last season with a career-high 24 home runs. 

The Mariners also acquired Eugenio Suarez from Reds, purging $35M.

The Reds’ big tank continues.

4:35 p.m.: Coveted Japanese free-agent outfielder Seiya Suzuki says he has not yet picked an MLB team, contrary to reports that he was set to join the Padres. While San Diego remains perhaps the favorite to land the 27-year-old, Jon Heyman reports the Dodgers, Giants, Red Sox, Mariners, Cubs and others are still involved.

Elsewhere in the NL West, the Rockies are making a push for free agent Kris Bryant, according to Nick Groke and Ken Rosenthal of The Athletic.  

2:12 p.m.: The Braves have their first baseman for 2022, but it isn’t Freddie Freeman. The reigning World Series champions are set to acquire Matt Olson from Oakland, according to ESPN’s Jeff Passan. That would seem to leave the Dodgers as the favorite to sign Freeman, with the Yankees still a possibility as well.

Olson, an Atlanta native who turns 28 next month, will have the tough task of replacing Freeman. He hit 39 home runs and posted a .911 OPS last season as he made the All-Star Game for the first time in his fourth full MLB season. 

The A’s will get outfielder Cristian Pache, catcher Shea Langeliers, and pitchers Ryan Cusick and Joey Este in return for Olson, Passan reported

1:15 p.m.: The Twins continue to be among the most active teams post-lockout, and they apparently are looking to make another rotation addition a day after acquiring Sonny Gray from Cincinnati. Jon Morosi reports the Twins and Athletics are engaged in discussions about a starting pitcher — likely Sean Manaea or Frankie Montas — moving to Minnesota. 

10:20 a.m.: Will Monday be the day Freddie Freeman makes a decision? Jon Heyman reports the Yankees are “pessimistic” about their chances to land the free-agent slugger, which would seem to leave a return to the Braves or a return home to the Dodgers as his top choices. As for the Yankees, it appears Anthony Rizzo might make the most sense among the remaining first basemen with the A’s apparently asking a bit much for Matt Olson. 

8:45 a.m.: Reporters are back in MLB clubhouses starting today, and that access already has paid dividends. Veteran reliever Sean Doolittle has a locker in the Nationals’ clubhouse in West Palm Beach, Jesse Dougherty of the Washington Post noted. The lefty has agreed to a major-league deal with the Nats pending a physical. 

4:05 a.m.: Where to begin? With a late-night blockbuster between the Yankees and Twins. New York acquired third baseman Josh Donaldson, infielder Isiah Kiner-Falefa and catcher Ben Rortvedt from Minnesota for catcher Gary Sanchez and third baseman Gio Urshela. The Yankees reportedly will take on all of Donaldson’s contract (two years, $50 million). Kiner-Falefa was a Twin for one day after being acquired in a trade with the Rangers. He’s now the Yankees’ new shortstop. What will Minnesota do for a shortstop now? A source told Dan Hayes of The Athletic that the team has been in contact with free agent Trevor Story.

Nelson Cruz is moving to the National League to be the Nationals’ DH in 2022. Multiple reports said that the sides agreed on a one-year contract with a mutual option for 2023. MLB.com’s Mark Feinsand reported that the total guarantee is $15 million — a $12 million salary in 2022 and a $3 million buyout of a $16 million option for ’23.

There’s an opening for a Carlos Correa-Astros reunion. Per Mark Berman of Houston television station KRIV, team owner Jim Crane said the team has “reached out” to Correa’s representatives and “are in discussions.” 

Right-hander Ian Kennedy is returning to the Diamondbacks. He has agreed to a one-year contract worth $4.75 million and can make an additional $2.35 million in incentives, MLB Network’s Jon Heyman reported. Kennedy pitched for Arizona from 2010-13; he went 21-4 with a 2.88 ERA in 2011. He split the 2021 season between Texas and Philadelphia, closing for both teams. 

Carlos Martinez is on his way to San Francisco. The right-hander announced the move on Instagram. Martinez, 30, spent the first nine years of his MLB career with the Cardinals, but the past two were marked by injuries and ineffectiveness. 

The Padres are “aggressively shopping” first baseman Eric Hosmer and outfielder Wil Myers, MLB.com’s Mark Feinsand reported. Both players have bloated contracts; Hosmer has four years and $59 million remaining on his deal, while Myers has one year and $20 million (plus a club option for 2023) left on his, according to Cot’s Contracts. Moving Myers would help clear the way for Japanese free agent Seiya Suzuki. The outfielder worked out for Padres executives at Petco Park during the weekend and met with Padres ace Yu Darvish and his family, Dennis Lin of The Athletic reported

March 13

2:29 p.m.: The NL East is making some moves. The Phillies are reportedly looking at bringing back outfielder Odubel Herrera, according to Audacy’s Jon Heyman. Heyman also reported that the Nationals have brought back Anibal Sanchez, while the New York Post’s Joel Sherman reported that the Mets have signed reliever Adam Ottavino.

1:41 p.m.: FanSided’s Robert Murary reported that longtime Phillie — and, more recently, Padre — starting pitcher Vince Velasquez has signed with the White Sox.

1:30 p.m.: The Reds announced that they had traded starting pitcher Sonny Gray to the Twins along with Francis Peguero in exchange for top prospect Chase Petty. After a down year in 2018 with the Yankees, Gray, 32, had a resurgence with the Reds, pitching to a 3.49 ERA across 68 starts in three seasons with 432 strikeouts. Petty, 18, was drafted 26th overall in 2021, and ranked as the No. 7 prospect in the Twins’ system, according to MLB Pipeline. Peguero, 24, had a 4.96 ERA in 28 relief appearances in Class High-A Daytona in 2021.

1:10 p.m.: Several utility bats are on the move in the free agency market. Former Oriole Hanser Alberto is headed to the Dodgers, according to FanSided’s Robert Murray, while El Extrabase is reporting that Ehire Adrianza is moving from the Braves to the Nationals.

12:25 p.m.: The early portion of Sunday’s free agency news featured a wave of relief pitching signings. The Red Sox inked left-handers Matt Strahm and Jake Diekman to deals, according to FanSided’s Robert Murray and MassLive’s Chris Cotillo. Audacy’s Jon Heyman reported that swingman Jesse Chavez will be signing with the Cubs, marking the second time he has pitched with the team.

March 12

11:47 p.m.: Rounding up bits and pieces from Saturday: Nelson Cruz is receiving a lot of attention thanks to the new universal DH. ESPN’s Enrique Rojas reports “at least eight” teams are interested, including the Dodgers, Brewers and Padres. . . . Reds GM Nick Krall told reporters he has not “been engaged” with Nick Castellanos’ representatives, a further sign the outfielder is leaving Cincinnati. . . . The Twins are among the teams interested in free-agent right-hander Johnny Cueto, Darren Wolfson of Minneapolis TV station KSTP reported. . . . The Angels and catcher Kurt Suzuki have agreed on a one-year, $1.75 million contract, Robert Murray of FanSided reported. . . . The Nationals and free-agent reliever Steve Cishek agreed on a one-year contract worth a reported $1.75 million guaranteed and up to $500,000 in incentives. 

11:27 p.m.: A’s third baseman Matt Chapman is one of the top trade targets heading into the season. The Phillies are one of the teams with interest in acquiring him. But Philadelphia is balking at the price tag, reports Alex Coffey of the Philadelphia Inquirer, a former A’s beat writer.

8:49 p.m.: Veteran reliever Alex Colome is headed to the Rockies, reports ESPN’s Enrique Rojas.

8:46 p.m.: Jeurys Familia is staying in the NL East. The former Mets reliever has a deal with the Phillies. Mike Puma of the New York Post has the numbers:

8:39 p.m.: The Mets upgraded their rotation with right-hander Chris Bassitt, acquired from the A’s for pitching prospects J.T. Ginn and Adam Oller. Bassitt, 33, was one of Oakland’s top starters last season (3.15 ERA/3.34 FIP, 9.1 K/9), and he showed his grit by returning from a brutal mid-August facial injury to pitch twice in September. New York’s starting five is now Jacob deGrom, Max Scherzer, Bassitt, Taijuan Walker and Carlos Carrasco.       

8:33 p.m.: The Rangers traded Gold Glove infielder Isiah Kiner-Falefa and minor league pitcher Ronny Henriquez to the Twins for slugging catcher Mitch Garver. Kiner-Falefa will likely slot in at shortstop for Minnesota, which can now keep Jorge Polanco at second base. Garver will start the season as Texas’ No. 1 receiver ahead of Jose Trevino and Jonah Heim.

8:20 p.m.: The Astros add to their infield depth with former Tigers utilityman Niko Goodrum. Houston signed him to a one-year contract. Goodrum, 30, rejected an outright assignment to the minors by Detroit in November and became a free agent. He has played everywhere but pitcher and catcher in his MLB career.

8:17 p.m.: Veteran catcher Luke Maile lands with the Guardians on a one-year, $900,000 contract. Maile, 31, previously played for the Rays, Blue Jays and Brewers. Cleveland lists Austin Hedges as its No. 1 catcher.

8:06 p.m.: The Orioles finally have a catcher for the 40-man roster. Robinson Chirinos has agreed to a one-year contract. He is expected to back up and mentor top prospect Adley Rutschman. 

Earlier Saturday, Baltimore announced the signing of right-handed starter Jordan Lyles to a one-year contract with a club option for 2023.

8 p.m.: The White Sox are bringing in veteran utilityman Josh Harrison on a one-year, $5 million contract that includes a club option for 2023. Harrison, 34, played for the Nationals and A’s last season.

7:50 p.m.: The White Sox’s bullpen is even deeper after the addition of right-hander Joe Kelly, who reportedly has agreed to a two-year contract with a club option for 2024. The deal reportedly guarantees Kelly $17 million.

Kelly gives Chicago another flamethrowing late-inning option. He joins Liam Hendriks, Craig Kimbrel, Kendall Graveman, Aaron Bummer, Garrett Crochet and, unless he joins the rotation, Michael Kopech. 

7:47 p.m.: Another shortstop is off the board: Jose Iglesias goes to the Rockies on a one-year deal worth a reported $5 million. The defense-first Iglesias, 32, will take Trevor Story’s spot on the infield. Iglesias played for the Angels and Red Sox in 2021.

7:40 p.m.: The Blue Jays add to their rotation with left-hander Yusei Kikuchi. The deal reportedly is for three years and $36 million.

Kikuchi, 30, spent the past three years with the Mariners after signing as a free agent from Japan on New Year’s Day in 2019. Last season, he pitched to a 4.41 ERA/4.61 FIP in 157 innings. Seattle skipped his final turn in the rotation in late September because of ineffectiveness.

March 11

8:45 p.m.: Freddie Freeman Watch is on. The slugging first baseman could make a decision by Saturday after receiving a “strong” offer from the Dodgers, Jon Morosi reports. Financial terms were not disclosed.

6:26 p.m.: The Cubs have found a new shortstop, but it’s not one that people were expecting. Chicago has agreed to a one-year, $4 million contract (plus incentives) with Andrelton Simmons, MLB Network’s Jon Heyman reported. The smooth-fielding Simmons, 32, played in 131 games for the Twins last season.

There were rumors earlier that top-of-the-line free agent Carlos Correa was in play for the Cubs; interestingly, Ken Rosenthal of The Athletic reports that Chicago could still try to sign him..

6:12 p.m.: Clayton Kershaw is back for another season with Dodgers, Ken Rosenthal of The Athletic reported. Sources later told ESPN’s Jeff Passan that the one-year contract is worth $17 million, with another $5 million in incentives. Kershaw, who will turn 34 on March 19, had a 3.55 ERA and 144 strikeouts over 121 2/3 innings for LA in 2021 but also missed time with elbow inflammation and forearm discomfort. 

4:06 p.m.: Carlos Rodon gets paid: The Giants and the starter agree to a two-year, $44 million pact, according to Jeff Passan. Passan reports that the deal also includes an opt-out after the first year.

4:05 p.m.: If you think it’d be weird to see Clayton Kershaw in a uniform other than a Dodgers’ uniform, then you’re not alone. According to ESPN’s Buster Olney, “industry speculation” dictates that Kershaw will go back to Chavez Ravine for another season.

3:58 p.m.: The Red Sox could bring back starter Colin McHugh. McHugh signed to pitch for Boston in 2020, but opted out due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

3:45 p.m.: Freddie Freeman: Los Angeles Dodger? Dave Roberts says that the possibility exists, and that signing Freeman is “certainly in the conversation” for LA.

3:37 p.m.: Albert Pujols, one more season? According to Mark Feinsand, there are several teams interested in the slugger, and with the addition of the DH in the NL, he may have a market if he chooses to continue playing. Three teams rumored to be involved: The Mariners, Cardinals and Rockies.

2:35 p.m.: Oh, we’re cooking now: Martin Pérez is on his way to Texas, per the Athletic’s Robert Murray. He gets $4 million on a one-year deal.

11:55 a.m.: A signing: Reliever Drew VerHagen has signed with the Cardinals on a two-year deal, per Mark Feinsand. VerHagen makes his return to the majors after spending the last two seasons in NPB. The team makes the signing official:

11 a.m.: Things are still a bit quiet on the hot stove front, but Jon Heyman reports that Bryce Harper could angle to bring fellow Las Vegas-born ballplayer Kris Bryant to Philly.

8:50 a.m.: The Cubs are eyeing one of free agency’s top stars to rekindle the hot stove: Jon Morosi reports that Chicago is among the favorites to land Carlos Correa. 

8:30 a.m.: The Braves took a serious run at Justin Verlander before he ended up re-signing with the Astros, per Jon Morosi — an indication the defending champs will look to bolster their rotation now that business is back on. 

March 10

11:36 p.m.: Still no new free-agent signings as it inches toward midnight on the east coast. It seems like we won’t see any new deals until Friday, at this rate.

10:05 p.m.: Speaking of Freeman, the Dodgers have a “sincere” interest in him. So do the Braves and Yankees.

10:03 p.m.: It would appear that Freddie Freeman isn’t the only former Brave that will be a hot commodity on the free-agent market. Jorge Soler is expected to draw a lot of interest with MLB’s institution of the universal DH.

9:10 p.m.: MLB Network’s Jon Morosi reports that free agency talks are “extremely” busy. There haven’t been any signings into this second wave of free agency, but Morosi says it will be a “busy weekend.”

8:40 p.m.: So much for “pandemonium,” at least out of the gate. There still haven’t been any new free-agent deals or trades since MLB free agency reopened at 7 p.m. ET. Perhaps MLB GMs are gearing up for a late-night rush.

7:44 p.m.: No free-agent deals to report on yet, but Bob Nightengale reports that 16 teams will play their Opening Day on April 7 while 14 will have theirs on April 8. The first game on the schedule in 2022 will be a Red Sox-Yankees clash at Yankee Stadium.

7:29 p.m.: Something to keep in mind for Blue Jays fans — unvaccinated players are not able to play in Canada under the new CBA. As such, Toronto almost certainly won’t sign unvaccinated players.

6:59 p.m.: Are the Yankees going to get Freddie Freeman? ESPN’s Buster Olney reports that rival executives are wondering if New York will move quickly on the former Braves slugger.

6:50 p.m.: The owners have officially voted to end the lockout meaning that the start of free agency is imminent. It will begin at about 7 p.m. ET when the lockout is set to officially be lifted.

4 p.m.: For those who have been patiently waiting the restart of MLB, this should excite you just a bit: 

MORE: Carlos Correa, Freddie Freeman lead list of MLB’s 35 best post-lockout free agents

MLB free agent signings

SN is tracking where the top 25 free agents, according to our list, will be signing. Deals signed by other free agents will be included in the section below:

Player Position Opening Day Age Team Deal
Carlos Correa SS 27
Corey Seager SS 27 Rangers 10 years, $325 million
Marcus Semien 2B/SS 31 Rangers 7 years, $175 million
Freddie Freeman 1B 32
Robbie Ray SP 30 Mariners 5 years, $115 million
Max Scherzer SP 37 Mets 3 years, $130 million
Kris Bryant 3B/OF 30
Nick Castellanos OF 30
Starling Marte OF 33 Mets 4 years, $78 million
Marcus Stroman SP 30 Cubs 3 years, $71 million
Javier Báez 2B/SS 29 Tigers 6 years, $140 million
Trevor Story SS 29
Kevin Gausman SP 29 Blue Jays 5 years, $110 million
Kyle Schwarber OF/DH 29
Chris Taylor UTIL 31 Dodgers 4 years, $60 million
Carlos Rodon SP 29 Giants 2 years, $44 million
Noah Syndergaard SP 29 Angels 1 year, $21 million
Clayton Kershaw SP 34 Dodgers 1 year, $17 million
Justin Verlander SP 39 Astros 1 year, $25 million
J.D. Martinez DH 34 Red Sox *1 year, $19.35 million
Jorge Soler OF 30
Eddie Rosario OF 30
Eduardo Rodriguez SP 29 Tigers 5 years, $77 million
Avisail Garcia OF 30 Marlins 4 years, $53 million
Jon Gray SP 30 Rangers 4 years, $56 million

Best MLB free agents for 2022

Here are the top 10 MLB free agents available after the lockout, according to SN’s Ryan Fagan. You can see his entire list of the top 35 players here.

1. Carlos Correa, SS

Opening Day age: 27
November FA rank: 1

Why he’s here: Correa is one hell of a baseball player. The primary knock on him has been his struggle to stay healthy and on the field, but he played 148 games for Houston last year, popping 26 homers to go with 92 RBI, a 7.2 bWAR — that number led AL position players — and 131 OPS+. He’s an elite defensive shortstop — he won the Platinum Glove award as the AL’s best defensive player — and he’s been outstanding in the postseason, with an .849 OPS and 18 homers in 79 career playoff games. And, yeah, there’s the whole sign-stealing scandal that might rub fans the wrong way, but it’s hard to imagine that being an impediment for a team that sees Correa as a fit. A lot of people thought he’d be a great fit in Detroit, on an up-and-coming team with his former manager, A.J. Hinch, but the Tigers signed Javier Baez. The Rangers took two of the free-agent shortstops off the market (Corey Seager and Marcus Semien). So where does Correa land? The Yankees are still a possibility, if they open up the vault. Maybe he goes back to Houston? Philly? The Dodgers? 

2. Freddie Freeman, 1B

Opening Day age: 32
November FA rank: 4

Why he’s here: Here’s what we wrote in November: “There’s just no way Atlanta can let him leave. None. Zero. But he’s a free agent, and he’s one hell of a player, so he’s on this list. Can you imagine how Braves fans would react if Atlanta offered Freeman a below-market deal and he left? It would be the shorted post-World Series honeymoon in the history of baseball.” Yeah … about that, well, the Braves didn’t offer him the right deal, apparently, and the chances of Freeman leaving seem a lot more real than they did a few months ago. Promise we’re not going to mention the Yankees for every player, but the idea of his lefty bat in the middle of that lineup with right-handed sluggers Aaron Judge and Giancarlo Stanton, taking aim at that short porch in right field at Yankee Stadium? That makes a lot of sense.  

3. Kris Bryant, 3B/OF

Opening Day age: 30
November FA rank: 7

Why he’s here: After a largely forgettable 2020 season, Bryant reestablished himself as an All-Star caliber player in 2021, with the Cubs and the Giants. He won’t get the bank-breaking blank-check mega-deal he once seemed destined for, but what team that fancies itself a World Series contender wouldn’t want to add a middle-of-the-order bat who is capable of starting at five positions on the field? If we’re betting, we’d bet that he returns to San Francisco, especially after Buster Posey retired and the Giants lost his right-handed bat in the lineup.

4. Nick Castellanos, RF

Opening Day age: 30
November FA rank: 8

Why he’s here: Castellanos, a shaky but passable defender, was helped by the news of a universal DH as much as any free-agent (other than maybe Nelson Cruz). Castellanos can hit, and he can hit anywhere. He’s the type of bat that helps a “meh” offense become a good offense, or a good offense become a great offense. Don’t overthink it. If your favorite team needs an outfielder (or a DH) and the offense needs a boost, Castellanos is the best option. 

5. Trevor Story, SS

Opening Day age: 29
November FA rank: 12

Why he’s here: Story struggled at the plate in 2021, no other way to put it. In the previous three years, he averaged a .292/.355/.554 slash line with a .909 OPS and 123 OPS+. In 2021, he posted a .251/.329/.471 slash line, with a .801 OPS and 103 OPS+. Like most hitters with the Rockies, Story’s numbers away from Coors Field have always been worse than his numbers at home, but his .203 average and .292 on-base percentage in 2021 were eye-opening. He did, though, hit more homers on the road (13) than at home (11). He’ll be able to find a multiple-year deal if he wants it, but if he wants to bet on himself and maximize his earning power, signing a one-year deal outside Colorado and producing like an All-Star/MVP candidate, then going back into the free-agent pool heading into his Age 30 season isn’t a bad option.  

6. Kyle Schwarber, DH/OF

Opening Day age: 29
November FA rank: 14

Why he’s here: Remember what we said about Castellanos? Same thing with Schwarber. The bat plays, at an elite level, and with the DH arriving in NL parks for 2022 and beyond, the lefty slugger should have no shortage of suitors once the machine starts back up. It’s funny, because as an outfielder who should be primarily a DH, that’s a drawback. But as a primary DH who can also play competent outfield for short stretches, it’s like a big bonus. 

7. Seiya Suzuki, RF

Opening Day age: 27
November FA rank: N/A (wasn’t officially a free-agent when our original list published)

Why he’s here: Suzuki made his debut with the Hiroshima Carp at 18 years old, and by 21 he was a legitimate star in Japan. In his “worst” season — 2020, at Age 25 — he batted .300 with a .953 OPS, 25 homers and 75 RBIs in 118 games. He followed that with a spectacular 2021 campaign, blasting 38 homers in 134 games, to go with a .317 average and 1.069 OPS. Over at FanGraphs, Suzuki’s ZIPS projections put him in the 21-23 homer range for the next several seasons, which would represent a nice right-handed outfield power upgrade for lots of contending teams. So where will he wind up? He’s been connected to the Cubs, Giants, Red Sox, Mariners and Padres, among other teams. Basically, pretty much everyone’s interested, as they should be.

8. Carlos Rodon, SP 

Opening Day age: 29
November FA rank: 16

Why he’s here: Just a stellar bounce-back year. Shoulder concerns might limit teams’ willingness to offer multiple years, but a gamble on a short (one or two year) deal at a higher salary seems like it would be appealing to lots of teams. Not Scherzer/Verlander money, but significant. And it wouldn’t be bad for Rodon to get back on the FA market with a healthy year or two under his belt at 30 or 31. 

9. Clayton Kershaw, SP 

Opening Day age: 34
November FA rank: 18

Why he’s here: Another guy it’s hard to imagine anywhere other than the team he’s always played with. Kershaw’s been outstanding when healthy — his 3.00 FIP was his best since 2016 — but he hasn’t made more than 28 starts since 2015 (he made 22 in 2021). How do you figure out a contract for him? I still think he winds up back in L.A., but there’s noise about the Rangers. They signed Seager and Semien, but even with Jon Gray added to the rotation, they could use another starter. Also, convincing Kershaw to return home would give the rebuilding club more credibility — a huge boost at the gate on days he pitches. 

10. Jorge Soler, OF

Opening Day age: 30
November FA rank: 21

Why he’s here: Did any player bump his value more than Soler in the postseason? It’ll be interesting to see how teams evaluate him; do they give more weight to his struggles in Kansas City in 2020-21 or his dynamic play with Atlanta? Obviously, he’s pleased with the universal DH development, too. 

SN’s Edward Sutelan and Jacob Camenker contributed to this piece.